The most consistently botched part of the US pandemic response

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Kubwereranso koopsa ku ganizo laposachedwa la CDC kufupikitsa nthawi yodzipatula kwa anthu omwe ali ndi kachilomboka. Matenda a covid-19 inali yaposachedwa kwambiri pamndandanda wa zolakwika zolumikizirana zomwe ali nazo tsopano kukhala meme.

Kulankhulana ndi gawo lofunikira pakuyankha kulikonse kwaumoyo wa anthu. Koma mabungwe azaumoyo ku US akhala akulimbana nazo kuyambira chiyambi cha mliriwu, pomwe akuluakulu aboma adalangiza poyamba kuti asavale maski koyambirira kwa 2020 asanadzisinthe kuti alimbikitse pafupifupi chilengedwe chonse.

Zikuoneka kuti chitsogozo choyambirira chikhoza kuperekedwa kuti asunge masks okwanira ogwira ntchito yazaumoyo. Akuluakulu a boma anali kuchenjeza panthawiyo kuti zipatala zitha kutha panthawi yovuta ngati pangakhale masks othamanga. Unali woyamba mwa “mabodza apamwamba” a mliriwu, The Weekndi Ryan Cooper analemba m’nkhani yochititsa chidwi pa chisamaliro cha abambo cha anthu aku US zomwe zasokoneza kuyankha kwa Covid-19 mdziko muno.

Mabungwe azaumoyo ku America alephera kulankhulana bwino ndi anthu aku US panthawi yonseyi pazifukwa ziwiri: mwina adasiyidwa akuyesera kuteteza mfundo zoyipa, kapena kutumizirana mamesejiko kwatenga m’malo mopanga mfundo zamtundu uliwonse.

“Sindikuganiza kuti bungwe lililonse la boma kapena boma lachita ntchito yabwino yolankhulirana panthawi ya mliriwu,” a Briana Mezuk, wamkulu wa Center for Social Epidemiology and Population Health ku University of Michigan School of Public Health, adandiuza. . “CDC ikadakhala ikupereka chitsanzo, ndipo ndikuganiza momwe idachitira: chitsanzo chocheperako.”

M’masiku oyambilira a mliriwu, lingaliro lodziwika bwino likadakhala la masks odyetserako chakudya, kuuza anthu kuti masks atha kukhala oteteza koma kuti zinthu zamtundu wapamwamba zizisungidwa kwa ogwira ntchito yazaumoyo. M’malomwake, akuluakulu a boma anaikana nkhaniyi n’kubzala mbewu za mkanganowo.

“Sitingathe kunamizira kuti kuyankhulana kungatitulutse pamayankho a mfundo,” a Michael Mackert, mkulu wa Center for Health Communication ku yunivesite ya Texas Austin, anandiuza.

Vuto la mfundo zosalongosoka kapena zokayikitsa zopanga mauthenga oyipa lakhala likubwerezedwa mobwerezabwereza panthawi yonse ya mliriwu, zomwe zakulitsa kukayikira za malingaliro a bungweli ndikupanga malo achonde kuti ma disinformation achuluke.

Chaka chotsatira chiwongolero choyamba cha masking flip-flop, CDC idapunthwanso pa masks kachiwiri. Mu Epulo 2021, bungweli adalimbikitsa adatemera anthu kuti apitirize kuvala masks m’malo ambiri amkati kuti achepetse kufala m’mbuyomu kudzibweza wokha ndikunena kuti anthu omwe ali ndi katemera atha kukhala omasuka kuti asavale zigoba m’nyumba pokhapokha ngati atafunsidwa ndi boma kapena boma.

Akatswiri ambiri azaumoyo wa anthu anakhulupirira ganizo lopumula chitsogozo cha masking kwa anthu omwe ali ndi katemera linali lisanakwane ndipo, miyezi ingapo pambuyo pake pomwe mtundu wa delta udayambitsa milandu, CDC. anasinthanso njira ndipo adalimbikitsa aliyense, kuphatikiza omwe ali ndi katemera, amavala zophimba nkhope akakhala m’nyumba pagulu.

Fananizani chikwapu ku US ndi njira yolowera Canada, yomwe idapereka kusintha kocheperako pakuwongolera kwake kwa masking nthawi yomweyo ndipo sikunafunikire kuwunikiranso mwachangu. Anthu aku Canada adalimbikitsidwa kuti azisunga masking, kusiyapo misonkhano yaying’ono yamkati ndi anthu ena otemera. Malingaliro amenewo khalani mochuluka kapena mocheperapo chimodzimodzi mpaka lero.

Ma pivots ena ofunikira pakuyankha kwa US adasokonezedwa m’miyezi yotsatira. Purezidenti Joe Biden adalengeza mu Ogasiti kuti kuwombera kolimbikitsa posachedwapa kupezeka kwa aliyense. Koma ena mwa alangizi aboma aboma adatsutsa lingalirolo pamisonkhano yapagulu, zomwe zidabweretsa chisokonezo ngati milingo yowonjezera inali yofunikira kwa aliyense.

Akuluakulu azaumoyo m’derali adakumana ndi zopinga zazikulu kuti athe kulumikizana bwino ndi anthu. Anthu aku America amagawikana, amadya zidziwitso zosiyanasiyana kuchokera kumagwero osiyanasiyana, molimbikitsidwa ndi malingaliro osiyanasiyana. Malo ochezera a pa Intaneti amalola kuti “njira zina” zachidziwitso zichuluke. Dziko lapansi linali lisanawonepo kachilombo ngati SARS-CoV-2 ndipo asayansi amaphunzira zambiri za kachilomboka munthawi yeniyeni. Zinali zosapeŵeka kuti ena mwa malingaliro awo oyambirira angakhale olakwika ndipo chitsogozo chiyenera kusintha.

Koma chisokonezo china chomwe chalepheretsa kuyankha kwa America chinali cholephereka. Makhalidwe omwe ali mgulu lachipatala Covid-19 isanachitike komanso zolakwika zomwe zidachitika pa mliri womwewo zathandizira kusagwirizana pakati pa akuluakulu azaumoyo ndi anthu omwe akuyesera kuwateteza.

“Mabungwe athu akutilepheretsa chifukwa chosowa mgwirizano, kusamveka bwino,” a Scott Ratzan, mkonzi wamkulu wa nyuzipepala. Journal of Health Communication: International Perspectives ndi mphunzitsi wa CUNY, adandiuza. “Izi ndizomwe zikuwonetsa kuti mabungwe athu azaka za zana la 21 sanakonzekere.”

Chifukwa chiyani mabungwe azachipatala aku America adalephera kutumizirana mauthenga a mliri

Kulakwitsa koyamba pakutumizirana mameseji ozungulira masks – kwenikweni, kusokeretsa anthu aku America, akuwoneka kuti akusunga masks – adakhazikitsa maziko azomwe zingatsate: machitidwe azaumoyo a anthu omwe akuyenera kukhala ndi mtima wokonda anthu omwe akuyenera kutero. kutumikira.

Ogwira ntchito yazaumoyo amalandila mabokosi odzazidwa ndi masks omwe aperekedwa ku North Shore University Hospital ku Manhasset, New York, pa Marichi 26, 2020.
Steve Pfost/Newsday kudzera pa Getty Images

Mezuk adawonetsa kukhumudwa kwake ndi mawu ngati “tsatirani sayansi” omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kulungamitsa mfundo zosiyanasiyana. Anthu pawokha amayenera kuyankha pamitundu yonse yamitundu yosiyanasiyana pazosankha zawo zatsiku ndi tsiku – kupanga ndalama, kuphunzitsa ana awo, kusamalira okondedwa – akamawunika za Covid-19, adatero.

Boma lidayenera kuganizira zambiri kuposa momwe anthu akuyankhira pa Covid-19. Panali zotsatira zachuma ndi chikhalidwe cha anthu kuti ayese pamene atseka malo odyera kapena kulimbikitsa maphunziro akutali. Kuvomereza zovutazi kukanapangitsa kuti anthu azikhulupirirana kwambiri pamene mliriwo udapitilira ndipo zina mwazowerengerazo zidayamba kusintha, m’malo moyerekeza kuti sayansi yathetsedwa.

“Kubwerera m’mbuyo, kukonzanso, ndi zina zotero, za ndondomeko zinali zosapeŵeka. Izi zikanayenera kunenedwa msanga, nthawi zambiri, komanso mobwerezabwereza, “Mezuk anandiuza.

Akatswiri angapo adandiuza kuti akuluakulu aboma amayenera kukonzekera bwino omvera awo kuti asinthe mfundo zomwe sizingalephereke, ndikuwonetsetsa kuti asayansi akuphunzirabe zambiri za kachilomboka ndipo mfundo ziyenera kusintha.

“M’malo mwake, adapita ndi ‘ife tikutsatira sayansi,’ zomwe anthu amatanthawuza kuti, ‘kotero ngati simukugwirizana ndi zomwe tasankha, simuyenera kutsatira sayansi,” adatero. “Kumeneku ndi bodza chabe, ndipo anthu ankadziwa zimenezo. Chifukwa chake CDC ndi atsogoleri ena adasiya kudalirika kwambiri zomwe ndikuganiza kuti anthu akadawapatsa ufulu akadapanda kutsata nkhani yosavutayi. ”

Mwanjira zina, nkhondo yopambana mitima ndi malingaliro pa nthawi ya mliri idatayika Covid-19 isanafike. Akatswiri angapo adanenanso kuti anthu ambiri sadziwa bwino kutanthauzira ziwerengero kapena kuwunika zoopsa monga momwe akatswiri azaumoyo amaphunzitsira, ndipo akuluakulu azaumoyo nthawi zambiri amalephera kupeza njira zosavuta koma zothandiza zoperekera malingaliro ovuta kwa anthu ambiri.

Mkangano wokhudza kuwombera kolimbikitsa mwina ndi chitsanzo chofunikira kwambiri cha momwe boma lingasokonezere mauthenga mozungulira mfundo zake. Biden adatsogola alangizi aboma asayansi pomwe adalengeza zolimbikitsa kwa aliyense kumapeto kwachilimwe. Alangizi aboma aboma komanso opereka ndemanga pazaumoyo wa anthu ambiri adagawikana pazabwino zolimbikitsira.

CDC idasiyidwa kuyesa kupanga malingaliro mkati mwamkangano wachisokonezowu. Bungweli lidayesa koyamba kugawanitsa kusiyana, ndikulimbikitsa anthu onse azaka zopitilira 65 ndi anthu opitilira zaka 50 omwe ali ndi vuto lazachipatala kuti alimbikitse. Inanenanso kuti anthu osakwana zaka 50 omwe ali ndi mikhalidwe yomwe amakhalapo kale kapena amagwira ntchito pamalo owonekera kwambiri akhoza kupeza mlingo wowonjezera ngati atasankha.

Kodi zolimbikitsa zinali ndani kwenikweni (anthu achikulire? antchito ofunikira? aliyense?) adasokonezeka. Pofika Disembala, ngakhale CDC itawunikiranso chitsogozo cholimbikitsa aliyense wopitilira zaka 18 kuti alandire Mlingo itatu ya katemera, m’modzi mwa akulu asanu omwe adalandira katemera sanadziwike pazomwe bungweli lidalimbikitsa, malinga ndi a Kafukufuku wa Kaiser Family Foundation.

US tsopano kuseri kwa United Kingdom popereka Mlingo wachitatu, makamaka pakati pa okalamba omwe amapindula kwambiri ndi chilimbikitso. UK idakhala yolunjika kwambiri chitsogozo chake choyamba cha katemera: Anthu ena (akuluakulu opitilira 50, ogwira ntchito kutsogolo, anthu omwe alibe chitetezo chamthupi) ayenera kupeza chilimbikitso, kuyimitsa kwathunthu.

Ku US, ndondomeko yowonongeka inachititsa kuti mauthenga asamayende bwino. Akatswiri angapo omwe ndidalankhula nawo adasiyanitsa chisokonezo cha katemera ndi ma rubriki osavuta omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pofotokozera kuopsa kwa mphepo yamkuntho yomwe ikubwera. Anthu safunikira kudziwa zovuta za meteorology kuti amvetsetse kuti mphepo yamkuntho ya Gulu 5 idzakhala yoipa. Koma sitinapeze shorthand yogwira ntchito yofotokozera mfundo zokhuza Covid-19.

“Sindikudziwa kutsika kwa kuthamanga kwa barometric. Sitiyenera kupatsa anthu zidziwitso zonse zaukadaulo zomwe zitha kusokonekera ndikusinthidwa kukhala zabodza,” adatero Ratzan. “Asayansi angaganize kuti ayenera kufotokoza zifukwa zonse. Koma, pamapeto pake, timafunikira mgwirizano wasayansi womwe sungoyendetsedwa ndi data komanso umasonyezanso maziko a sayansi ya momwe anthu angayankhire. ”

Zomwe zimafunika kuti tizilankhulana bwino pakagwa ngozi yazaumoyo

Padzakhala ntchito yambiri yoti tipewe kubwereza zolakwika izi m’tsogolomu. Mu Ndemanga ya Disembala 2021 yofalitsidwa ndi National Academy of Medicine, ofufuza a zaumoyo adalimbikitsa ndondomeko ya “kuwonetsetsa kwakukulu” komwe kumayesa kukumana ndi anthu pamagulu onse a thanzi labwino.

Oyenda pansi adutsa chikwangwani chodziwitsa anthu cholimbikitsa kuti azicheza ndi anthu komanso kusamba m’manja kuti athandize kuchepetsa kufalikira kwa coronavirus ku Tokyo, Japan, pa Juni 22, 2021.
Eugene Hoshiko / AP

Mauthenga akhale osavuta. Boma la Japan “ma C atatu” – kulimbikitsa anthu kuti apewe malo otsekedwa, malo odzaza anthu, komanso malo ochezera apafupi – akuwoneka ngati amodzi mwa mauthenga ogwira mtima kwambiri a mliriwu. Izi Kusamba m’manja kwa Vietnamese PSA idafalikira mchaka cha 2020, motsogozedwa ndi nyimbo yosangalatsa komanso kuvina.

Suzanne Bakken, yemwe wathandizira nawo ntchito ya National Academy pa Covid, adandiuza izi “sinthanitsa popindika” unali uthenga wogwira mtima kwambiri umene unatumizidwa ku United States. Idakwanitsa kuyankhulana ndi cholinga chofunikira chaumoyo wa anthu m’njira zomveka komanso, kwa kanthawi, inapatsa anthu cholinga chogawana.

Iye anati: “Zimenezi zinalankhula ndi anthu. “Kunali mawonekedwe osavuta.”

Maphunziro monga Bakken akuganizanso za momwe angalimbikitsire maulamuliro azaumoyo am’deralo ndi magulu omwe si aboma, momwe anthu angadalire kwambiri ndale zomwe zikuchitika. Ndemanga ya National Academy of Medicine ikulingalira zamtundu wina wazinthu zadziko zomwe zingafalitse zidziwitso kwa ochita masewera amderali ndikuwalola kusankha momwe angakonzere uthengawo motengera dera lawo:

Kuyankhulana kuyenera kusinthidwa malinga ndi momwe anthu amakhalira komanso anthu ammudzi ndikuganizira momwe njira zoyankhulirana zokhazikitsidwa pakati zingakhazikitsidwe muufulu, kuponderezana ndi atsamunda, ndi tsankho. Popanda kumvetsetsaku, kulumikizana sikungasinthidwe moyenera kuti zigwirizane ndi momwe zinthu zilili mdera lanu, motero madera ambiri angakanidwe.

Ili ndi phunziro lomwe maiko ena omwe azolowera kwambiri za ngozi zadzidzidzi aphunzira kale. Mu mndandanda wa Vox’s Pandemic Playbook, mtolankhani Jen Kirby anapita ku Senegal ndipo analankhula ndi ogwira ntchito za umoyo m’madera omwe anali ofunikira kwambiri pa kuyankha kwa dzikolo, monga njira yolumikizirana komanso olankhulana nawo m’midzi ndi matauni awo.

Poganizira momwe dziko la US lilili losiyana, komanso kudalirana kochuluka m’mabungwe ake amtundu wina kwawonongeka, chitsanzo choterocho chingapereke njira imodzi yothetsera ubale pakati pa anthu aku America ndi mabungwe ake azaumoyo.

“Sikungowonjezera uthengawo,” adatero Ratzan, “koma kukhala ndi mesenjala woyenera, wokhala ndi mulingo woyenera.”

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